Christian Kruse
Tel.1: +49(0)5151-999 632
Tel.2: +49(0)511-762 17253

In the research of industrial silicon solar cells the gap to the theoretical efficiency limit of about 29% closes gradually. State-of-the-art industrial PERC cells achieve efficiencies around 22% leaving only 7% efficiency improvement potential. Closing this gap further is a challenging task for cell developers. The identification of the most promising cell properties for the further research is an important aspect of the development process. The SEGA-GUI, which can be downloaded below, addresses this task by enabling researchers to perform synergistic efficiency gain analyses (SEGA) without any programming knowledge and on short timescales. Here the solar cell is simulated one time with the parameter as in a reference simulation and one time with the parameter idealized. The difference of the energy conversion efficiencies is the improvement potential due to this parameter. This approach also enables the analysis of synergistic effects between different loss channels. Also partly deactivated loss channels can be analyzed. The input required for performing a SEGA is a set of easily measurable cell properties including resistances and recombination currents. The optical properties of the cell can be determined from a measured reflectance spectrum. The SEGA-GUI employs Quokka 2 by A. Fell to perform the necessary simulations. Quokka 2 and the corresponding resources can be found at: 2.aspx

The output of a SEGA simulation is a sorted list of options for higher efficiency. The result graphs are automatically created within the SEGA-GUI

In a synergistic efficiency gain analysis each gain is determined by the difference of simulated efficiencies with the loss channel activated and deactivated. In addition, synergies can be analyzed by simultaneously switching off multiple loss channels. Consequently a SEGA requires about 20 simulations for a complete analysis of the cell. The SEGA-GUI automatically performs these simulations by employing Quokka 2 and automatically analyzes the result files.

The SEGA-GUI can be entirely operated using Graphical user interfaces. This includes the definition of input-files. For PERC, PERT-BJ and IBC cells predefined input masks are available.


  • C. N. Kruse, K. Bothe, B. Lim, T. Dullweber, and R. Brendel
    Synergistic Efficiency Gain Analyses for the Photovoltaic Community: An Easy to Use SEGA Simulation Tool for Silicon Solar Cells
    WIP (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Brussels, Belgium, Forthcoming.

  • C. N. Kruse, K. Bothe, and R. Brendel
    Comparison of Free Energy Loss Analysis and Synergistic Efficiency Gain Analysis for PERC Solar Cells
    IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 8 (3), 683-688 (2018), ISSN: 2156-3381.

  • R. Brendel, T. Dullweber, R. Peibst, C. Kranz, A. Merkle, and D. Walter
    Breakdown of the efficiency gap to 29% based on experimental input data and modelling
    WIP (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 264-272 Hamburg, Germany, (2015), ISBN: 3-936338-39-6.

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